Zero-G News
Volume 14; Issue 56 ~ Zero-G News (ISSN 2333-7257) ~ A Publication Of Ares Institute, Inc.
Breaking News
NASA And NanoRacks Parter On First Commercial ISS Airlock
The International Space Station allows NASA to conduct cutting-edge...
NASA Langley Ozone Sensor Set for Launch to Space Station
Brooke Thornton has devoted eight years to a project...
NASA Sounding Rocket Successfully Launches into Alaskan Night
An experiment to measure nitric oxide in the polar...
Kennedy Space Center’s NASA Day of Remembrance Honors Fallen Astronauts
On Jan. 26, 2017, Kennedy Space Center employees and...
Atlas Begins 2017 With Successful Launch Of Missile Warning Satellite
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket successfully launched...
Falcon 9 Returns To Flight To Orbit Next-Generation Iridium Spacecraft
Four and a half months after a devastating explosion...
NASA Awards Contract for Series of CubeSat Technology Missions
NASA’s Small Spacecraft Technology Program has selected Tyvak Nanosatellite...
SpaceX Falcon 9 / Iridium NEXT FAA Launch License
Comments What do you think?
NASA Orders Additional Commercial Crew Flights From Boeing, SpaceX
NASA took another big step to ensure reliable crew...
NASA Selects Mission to Study Black Holes, Cosmic X-ray Mysteries
NASA has selected a science mission that will allow...
SpaceX Pinpoints Cause Of Falcon 9 Explosion, Targets Launch Next Week
Four months after a massive fireball destroyed a Falcon...
Next-Generation Weather Satellite Successfully Launches On Atlas V
Perched atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket,...
Antares Returns To Flight Carrying Critical Supplies For ISS
Orbital ATK successfully launched its Antares rocket carrying a...
NASA Prepares The Next-Generation Of Weather Satellite For Launch
On September 27, NASA offered members of the media...
Falcon 9 Accident Traced To Upper Stage Helium System Breach
(Editor’s Note: This is an update provided to Zero-G...
Orbital ATK Sets Target Window For Antares Return-To-Flight
Orbital ATK is targeting no earlier than Oct. 9-13,...
United Launch Alliance Announces CubeSat STEM Education Program Winners
United Launch Alliance (ULA) has selected four proposals from...
KSC Visitor Complex Destination: Mars Experience Offers A Virtual Reality Tour Of Mars
A walk on Mars may be in the future...
Emergency management: A behind the scenes look on the Eastern Range
Last week, the 45th Space Wing’s Incident Management Team...
NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Begins Seven-Year Odyssey To Sample An Asteroid
Blazing a trail into the early evening sky, the...
Firing Up Rocket Engine Tests
A 100-pound liquid oxygen/liquid methane engine fires up after...
SpaceX Begins Test Fire Series On Landed Falcon 9 First Stage
Looking to re-launch one of their succeffully-landed Falcon 9...
NASA Orders Second Commercial Crew Dragon Mission From SpaceX
NASA took another important step Friday in returning U.S....
Atlas V Launches Classified Communications Relay Satellite For NRO
A United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket carrying...
SpaceX Launches 9th Cargo Mission To ISS, Delivers Groundbreaking Science
Instruments to perform the first-ever DNA sequencing in space,...
Orbital ATK Conducts Final Qualification Test For Space Launch System Booster
A booster for the most powerful rocket in the...
Delta IV Blazes The Night Sky To Launch Clandestine Spy Satellite
Just five days after successfully orbiting the GPS IIF-12...
Final Block 2 GPS Satellite Launches On Atlas V
Continuing a record of perfect mission reliability, a United...
Falcon 9 Returns To Flight, Completes Historic First Earth Landing
Plummeting through the black sky above Cape Canaveral at...
SpaceX Targets December 19 Falcon 9 Return To Flight
Nearly six months after a space station resupply mission...
Cygnus Returns To Space Riding The Powerful Atlas Rocket
Space station cargo resupply missions from U.S. soil resumed...
Atlas V Successfully Launches Penultimate GPF IIF Series Spacecraft
Soaring through a crystal-clear autumn afternoon, a United Launch...
United Launch Alliance Marks 100th Launch With Morelos-3 Success
United Launch Alliance successfully launched its 100th mission today...
Atlas Successfully Deploys Fourth Mobile Comsat For U.S. Navy
Putting on a spectacular pre-sunrise light show, a United...
NASA Awards Grants For Transformative Space Technologies
NASA has selected eight university-led proposals to study innovative,...
Space Launch System RS-25 Main Engine Completes Key Full-Duration Test
Aerojet Rocketdyne has successfully completed a full duration (535...
Orbital ATK Updates Progress On ISS Cargo Delivery Program
Orbital ATK is on track to launch its next...
Orion Spacecraft Begins Critical Design Review Milestone
NASA’s Orion Program kicked off its critical design review...
NASA’s Space Launch System Passes Critical Design Review Milestone
You know the feeling of pride and achievement when...
Delta IV Launches High Capacity Digital WGS-7 Military Comsat
A United Launch Alliance (ULA) Delta IV rocket successfully...
Kennedy Space Center Opens New Small Vehicle Launch Complex
NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida took another step...
Atlas Delivers Again With Newest Air Force GPS Satellite
The newest member of the the Air Force’s worldwide...
NASA Names First Four Commercial Crew Program Astronauts
As Boeing and SpaceX continue working toward the goal...
Video Feature: SpaceX Falcon 9 CRS-7 Launch In Slow Motion
During this month’s launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9...
SpaceX Delays Crucial Test, Moves Crew Dragon Abort Test To KSC
Following the successful pad abort test in May, SpaceX...
First Falcon 9 Loss Leaves SpaceX Reeling, Challenges ISS Resupply Lines
Sunday’s loss of the 19th Falcon 9 rocket on...
NASA Launches Suborbital Rocket From Wallops With Student Experiments
NASA successfully launched a NASA Terrier-Improved Orion suborbital sounding...
NASA Hosts Rocket Week at Wallops Flight Facility
Students and educators from across the country will have...
Atlas V Launches Secret X-37B Spaceplane And Novel Solar Sail Experiment
With help from NASA, a small research satellite to...
SpaceX Successfully Completes Crew Dragon PAd Abort Test
A loud whoosh, faint smoke trail and billowing parachutes...
Five Things To Know About Dragon’s Pad Abort Test
Crew Dragon’s first critical flight test, known as a...
Blue Origin Conducts First Test Flight Of New Shepard Suborbital Rocket
Secretive space startup Blue Origin achieved a significant milestone...
NASA Launches RockSat-X Sounding Rocket With University Payloads
A NASA Terrier-Improved Malemute suborbital sounding rocket carrying the...
Falcon 9 Blasts Off With Cargo Supporting NASA’s One-Year Mission
Two tons of supplies and research cargo are headed...
Blue Origin Completes Acceptance Testing of New Shepard BE-3 Engine
Blue Origin recently completed acceptance testing of its BE‑3...
NASA’s Space Launch System to Boost Science with Secondary Payloads
When NASA’s new Space Launch System (SLS) launches on...
American And Russian Begin Yearlong Orbital Journey
ISS One-Year Mission Expedition 43 Soyuz TMA-16M Launch Coverage...
Delta IV Hits The Mark With Another Successful GPS Launch
Piercing a thick layer of clouds that hung low...
United Launch Alliance Lets The Public Name Its New Rocket
ULA is offering the public the opportunity to select...
SpaceX Clarifies Reason For TurkmenAlem52E Launch Delay
Over the weekend, SpaceX filled in some of the...
NASA Provides Space Access for University Developed Experiments during March 27 Flight
NASA will fly six university experiments developed by undergraduate...
Lockheed Martin Pitches Novel Concept For CRS-2 ISS Resupply
On May 10, 1869, Leland Stanford raised a hammer...
Aerojet Rocketdyne Gets Fired Up About 3D Printing
Additive Manufacturing, also known as 3d printing, has been...
ULA, SpaceX Go Head-To-Head At House Armed Services Cmte Hearing
United Launch Alliance (ULA) President and CEO Tory Bruno...
Technical Issues Prompt Falcon 9 Launch Delay For TurkmenAlem52E/MonacoSAT
Technical problems with the Falcon 9 rocket’s first stage...
Spectacular Launch Delivers MMS Probes To Study Magentic Reconnection
NASA’s first-of-its kind mission to study the violent interactions...
Paper: Launch Window Assessment For The MMS Mission
Comments What do you think?
Falcon Orbits Electric Satellites On Dual-Launch Milestone
Working to build a steady launch pace and shake...
Deep Space Falcon Launch Successfully Deploys NASA’s DSCOVR Climate Observatory
The second mission of 2015 for SpaceX’s Falcon 9...
NASA Selects Winning Student Designs Of 3-D Printed Tools For Astronauts
After three months of designing and modeling, a panel...
NASA’s New Horizons Returns First Photos Of Pluto, Charon As It Nears Encounter
NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft returned its first new images...
“Old Reliable” Delta II Orbits First Of A Kind Soil Moisture Mapping Spacecraft
Blazing a trail through a cloudy California morning, a...
Planetary Society Announces LightSail Spacecraft Test Flight
The Planetary Society today announced the first of its...
Photo Gallery: Atlas V-551 Launches The Navy’s MUOS-3 Satellite
Comments What do you think?
SpaceX And US Air Force Agree To Settle Lawsuit
Just days after entering judge-ordered mediation, SpaceX and the...
First Full-Scale SLS Booster Installed On Stand For March Static Test
NASA and ATK have completed installing the first Space...
NASA Completes Investigation of 2014 Sounding Rocket Failure
January 12, 2015 – An investigation team has determined...
Atlas V Successfully Launches Navy’s “Orbital Cell Tower”
Marking the 200th launch for the venerable Atlas-Centaur family...
Photo Feature: Five Rockets Are On The Pad In Alaska
January 20, 2015 – Five rockets are on the...
Five Sounding Rockets To Study Effect of Solar Wind On The Weather
January 13, 2015 – The interaction of solar winds...
RS-25 Main Engine Testing Resumes At Stennis After Five-Year Hiatus
The new year is off to a hot start...
Falcon 9 Launches Fifth Contracted SpaceX ISS Mission; Booster Recovery Test Fails
A Falcon 9 rocket blasted into space early this...
Technical Glitches, Orbital Mechanics Push Falcon 9 CRS-5 Launch Into 2015
The next launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket...
Amid Testing Trouble, Firm Launch Date Expected Today For Falcon 9 CRS-5
We should learn today whether or not SpaceX will...
X Marks the Spot: Falcon 9 To Attempt Ocean Platform Landing
(Source: SpaceX) During our next flight, SpaceX will attempt...
Powerful Atlas Launches Clandestine Satellite From California
The largest Atlas rocket to fly from California blasted...
Atlas To The Rescue, Orbital Selects ULA To Launch Cygnus To ISS In 2015
As the company continues to recover from October’s spectacular...
NASA’s Orion Spacecraft Completes “Picture Perfect” First Test Flight
Reaching a pinnacle in its nine-year development program, NASA’s...
Inferno Over Wallops! A first-hand Photo And Video Account Of Antares Launch Failure
Read the story with a full page of launch...
NASA’s Morpheus Lander Readies New Round Of Test Flights
NASA’s Morpheus experimental rocket-powered vertical takeoff and landing testbed...
Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo Crashes, One Pilot Reported Killed
We have received word that Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo failed...
Antares Explodes, ISS Cargo Lost In Launch Failure
Launch of the Cygnus spacecraft was supposed to be...
Atlas V Racks Up 50th Success With Launch of GPS IIF-8 For U.S. Air Force
A United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket successfully...
Hurricane Gonzalo Delays NASA’s Latest Cargo Run To ISS
Already delayed several times, the launch of an Orbital...
Photo Feature: Melbourne Air & Space Show
“We are thrilled by the turnout on Saturday for...
JPL Selects CubeSat Proposals for Europa Clipper Mission Study
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, has chosen...
Looking To The Future, Delta IV Rocket For Orion First Flight Reaches The Launch Pad
A United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket stands...
India, U.S. To Collaborate On Earth Obsevation, Mars Missions
In a meeting Tuesday in Toronto, NASA Administrator Charles...
Sierra Nevada Targets Air-Launch With Stratolaunch Partnership
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) today announced a design for...
ATK Test Fires Igniter For Orion Launch Abort System Motor
NASA and ATK successfully completed a static test of...
Delta IV Processing Nearly Complete For Historic EFT-1 Mission
Engineers took another step forward in preparations for the...
Sierra Nevada Files Protest Challenging NASA Commercial Crew Awards To Boeing, SpaceX
(Editor’s Note: The following is a press release from...
Dragon Blasts Off With Science, Supplies On Fourth Space Station Cargo Run
Dodging persistent thunderstorms that have beseiged Florida most of...
NASA Opens Bidding For Second Round Of ISS Cargo Resupply Services
On the heels of awarding groundbreaking contracts to U.S....
United Launch Alliance and Blue Origin To Develop RD-180 Alternative
Facing pressure to find a domestic replacement for the...
SpaceX Breaks Ground For Texas Spaceport, With Just A Hint Of Politics
Gov. Rick Perry today helped break ground on the...
One More Leap, Boeing And SpaceX Win NASA’s Commercial Crew Contracts
U.S. astronauts once again will travel to and from...
NASA Rolls Out First Orion Spacecraft For December EFT-1 Test Flight
NASA is making steady progress on its Orion spacecraft,...
Falcon 9 Successfully Delivers AsiaSat 6 Comsat To Orbit
A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket thundered into orbit during...
Acoustic Tests Help NASA Model SLS Launch Dynamics
Engineers at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,...
SLS Passes Milestone And Receives NASA Approval For Development
NASA officials Wednesday announced they have completed a rigorous...
SpaceX Falcon 9R Rocket Explodes During Texas Test Flight
SpaceX experienced a rare but disappointing failure today when...
Amazing Photo Captures Cygnus’ Flaming Re-Entry
ISS Expedition 40 crewmember Alexander Gerst captured this amazing...
Dramatic Video Shows Falcon First Stage Powered Descent After Launch
When SpaceX launched a Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket from...
On Its Way To A Fiery Re-Entry, Orbital’s Cygnus Departs ISS
Orbital Sciences Cygnus commercial cargo craft completed a month-long...
Atlas Rocket Orbits WorldView-3 Commercial Imaging Satellite
Continuing a very successful year for United Launch Alliance,...
ULA Names Tory Bruno President And CEO; Michael Gass Retires
United Launch Alliance named veteran aerospace industry executive Tory...
NASA Releases High-Definition Onboard Video From LDSD “Flying Saucer” Test
NASA’s Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project successfully flew a...
NASA To Create First 3D-Printed Space Cameras
By the end of September, NASA aerospace engineer Jason...
Final European Automated Transfer Vehicle Blasts Off On Ariane 5 To Resupply ISS
The European Space Agency’s (ESA) fifth and final Automated...
Delta IV Dodges Weather To Launch GSSAT Spacecraft On Fifth Try
After nearly a week of frustrating technical and then...
Delta II Returns To Service To Launch NASA’s First Carbon Monitoring Spacecraft
Following a one-day delay to fix a balky water...
Success For NASA’s Experimental Supersonic “Flying Saucer”
NASA officials are calling today’s near-space test flight of...
2014 NASA Advanced Technology Phase I Concepts Selected For Study
NASA has selected 12 proposals for study under Phase...
Projects Selected For NASA’s 2015 X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge
NASA and the National Space Grant Foundation have selected...
Orion Stacking Operations Begin For December EFT-1 Launch
With just six months until its first trip to...
Engine Failure Investigation Slips Next Cygnus ISS Resupply Mission Into July
Orbital Sciences Corporation announced that it has updated its...
NASA Video Highlights Orion, SLS Development Progress
This is NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate quarterly update...
NASA Uses Laser To Beam “Hello, World!” Video From ISS
NASA successfully beamed a high-definition video 260 miles from...
NASA’s Final Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Report Released
With two companies now providing commercial cargo launch services...
Orion Receives Heat Shield For Late 2014 EFT-1 Test Flight
Lockheed Martin technicians and engineers attach the heat shield...
Photo Feature: Meet The SpaceX Dragon V2 Spacecraft
SpaceX CEO and founder Elon Musk unveiled the Dragon...
NASA Readies Futuristic “Flying Saucer” For Flight Over Hawaii
UPDATE: Due to weather conditions, there will be no...
SpaceX Unveils Next-Generation Manned Dragon Spacecraft
With just a bit of Hollywood-esque flash, SpaceX unveiled...
Atlas V Successfully Deploys Classified NROL-33 Satellite
While the battle between SpaceX and United Launch Alliance...
Photo Feature: The Powerful Atlas Rocket Ready To Launch NROL-33
  Comments What do you think?
Delta IV Launches Sixth Upgraded GPS Satellite
America’s newest Global Positioning System satellite is now in...
Orbital And ATK Announce Merger Continuing Industry Consolidation
Orbital Sciences Corporation today announced that it has entered...
New Spacecraft Will Become First U.S. Space Lifeboat in 40 Years
The next generation of American spacecraft designed to carry...
NASA Partnerships Launch Multi-User Spaceport
Teamed with its industry partners, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center...
NASA Outlines Future Path To Human Mars Exploration
I will join 11 senior NASA officials in a...
Dragon Begins Third ISS Resupply Mission; First Stage Recovery Test Success
  A GoPro Captures Launch Of A SpaceX Falcon...
Atlas V Successfully Deploys Classified NROL-67 Satellite
. United Launch Alliance successfully launched the second mission...
Morpheus Completes First Test Of Hazard Avoidance System
The Morpheus team successfully completed Free Flight 10 (FF10)...
NASA’s LRO Mission and North America to Experience Total Lunar Eclipse
When people in North America look up at the...
Orion Avionics System Ready For Exploration Flight Test-1
Testing of the Orion spacecraft’s avionics system has concluded...
Space Launch System Core Stage Model ‘Sounds’ Off for Testing
A 5-percent scale model of the Space Launch System...
NASA Selects New Suborbital Technology Payloads
NASA’s Flight Opportunities Program has selected 13 space technology...
Air Force Weather Satellite Successfully Deployed On ULA’s 80th Launch
A United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket successfully...
Soyuz Blasts Off To Orbit Europe’s Sentinel-1A Earth Oservation Satellite
Continuing their track record for delivering both commercial and...
Air Force Releases Details Of Incident That Scrubbed Atlas And Falcon Launches
In the wake of serious outage on the U.S....
Orion Integration Makes Progress Toward Late-Year EFT-1 Mission
Orion is marching ever closer to its first trip...
Atlas 5 Rocket Launches To Successfully Deploy NASA’s Newest TDRS Satellite
A United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket thundered into...
Dragon Passes Another Milestone With Sucessful Parachute Drop Test Over Pacific Ocean
Engineers and safety specialists from NASA and Space Exploration...
NASA’s Morpheus Lander Soars Over Kennedy Space Center As Tests Continue
NASA’s Morpheus lander testbed resumed testing following a break...
2013 NASA Safety Report Highlights Funding Uncertainty, Commercial Crew Progress
The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP), an advisory committee...
NASA, Commercial Crew Partners Look To Make Strides In 2014
Several companies, working closely with NASA, ended 2013 with...
Space Launch System Could Enable Transformational Missions, Scientists Say
The human spaceflight community joined the space science community...
NASA Administrator Visits Michoud, Tours SLS Facilities
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden Monday visited the agency’s Michoud...
Florida Schools Send Experiments To ISS On Board Orbital’s Cygnus
When Orbital Sciences Corporation’s Cygnus cargo ship arrived at...
Cygnus Arrives At ISS With Supplies, Experiments
Astronauts aboard the International Space Station Sunday used a...
Virgin Galactic Reaches New Heights in Third Supersonic Test Flight‏
Virgin Galactic, the world’s first commercial spaceline, which is...
SpaceX Manifest Grows With JCSAT 14 Launch Contract
Fresh off its second successful launch of a commercial...
NASA, White House Discuss ISS Life Extension At International Space Exploration Forum
Speaking at a global space exploration forum Thursday, John...
NASA Powers Up SLS Avionics For The First Time
The modern avionics system that will guide NASA’s Space...
Antares Blasts Off With Cygnus On First Contracted ISS Resupply Mission
Marking the beginning of regular supply runs to the...
Antares Set For Chilly Launch To Space Station
1/8/14 7:00 am EST UPDATE: Early this morning the...
SpaceX Rings In The New Year With Launch Of Thai Satellite
A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket blasted off from Cape...
SpaceX’s Falcon 9 Poised For First Launch Of New Year
Looking to start 2014 with a roar, SpaceX is...
Photo Feature: NASA Readies TDRS-L Spacecraft For Late January Launch
NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-L was the...
Boeing Announces Expansion Of X-37B Operations At Kennedy Space Center
In what could be a boon for the aerospace...
SpaceX Delays Falcon 9 Launch Of Thaicom 6, Remains Confident Of January Liftoff
Bird-watchers on the beaches of Cape Canaveral will have...
NASA’s Resurrected Infrared Telescope Captures First Images, Prepares To Hunt Asteroids
NASA’s Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE), a...
NASA’s Next Mars Lander Gets A Launch Vehicle
NASA has selected United Launch Services LLC of Centennial,...
Dreamchaser Completes NASA Commercial Crew Milestones
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) today announced that the company...
Aerojet Rocketdyne Completes Launch Abort Engine Testing for Boeing CST-100 Spacecraft
Aerojet Rocketdyne announced today that it completed development testing...
Balky Station Cooling Pump Creates Delay, Uncertainty For Cygnus Resupply Mission
NASA and Orbital Sciences Corp. Saturday moved the targeted...
SpaceX Gains Advantage Over Blue Origin In Fight For Former Shuttle Launch Pad
Government Accountability Office denies Blue Origin’s protest over fairness...
Cygnus Joins Antares For Second Space Station Supply Run
On December 10, Orbital Sciences Corporation’s operations team mated...
NASA’s Juno Photographs Spectacular Views Of Earth And Moon During Flyby
When NASA’s Juno spacecraft flew past Earth on Oct....
NASA’s Morpheus Lander Returns To Flight At Kennedy Space Center
Rebuilt and better than ever, NASA’s Morpheus prototype lander...
Proton Notches Another Success With Launch Of Inmarsat-5 F1
An International Launch Services (ILS) Proton Breeze M successfully...
Atlas V Lofts Top-Secret Satellite, 12 CubeSats For NASA And Education
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket carrying a...
SpaceX Reaches Milestone With Falcon 9 Launch Of Commercial Satellite
Making its commercial debut, an upgraded Falcon 9 rocket...
Blue Origin Test-Fires New BE-3 Rocket Engine
NASA commercial crew partner Blue Origin of Kent, Wash.,...
China Successfully Launches First Lunar Lander Chang’e 3
A Long March 3B rocket blasted off from the...
SpaceX Targets Thanksgiving For Inaugural Falcon 9 GTO Mission
SpaceX is hoping for a special Thanksgiving after the...
NASA’s MAVEN Rockets To Explore Mysteries Of Mars Atmosphere
 With a thunderous roar, NASA’s Mars Atmoshere and Volatile...
Today In History, November 10, 1964 – KSC Mercury Monument Dedication
The Mercury Monument stands outside of Complex 14 was...
Dream Chaser And Role Of The Media On Public Perception Of Failure
Last week, Sierra Nevada conducted the first free-flight test...
Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaser Suffers Setback During First Free Flight Test
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) suffered an apparent setback of...
Proton Rocket Successfully Launches FM-6 Satellite For Sirius XM Radio
International Launch Services (ILS), a leader in providing mission...
This LADEE Wasn’t Just Eating Bon Bon’s During The Government Shutdown
During the NASA shutdown, the LADEE mission continued to...
Proton Set To Launch Comsat For Sirius XM After 24-Hour Delay
The launch of a Proton launch vehicle with the...
Dramatic Video Captures Grasshopper’s Highest Jump To Date
On Monday, October 7th, Grasshopper completed its highest leap...
The View From Here: Curiosity Looks Back At Home
The HiRISE instrument would make a great backyard telescope...
SpaceX Releases New Photos And Video Of Next-Gen Falcon 9 Demo
SpaceX released stunning new photos and video from the...
MAVEN Granted Reprieve, Preparations Resume For November Launch
The cloud of pessimism over NASA because of funding...
Second-Generation Falcon Takes Flight To Test New Engines, Recoverability
Equipped with upgraded engines, computer systems and greatly improved...
Curiosity Fails To Find Methane And Adds To The Mystery Of Life On Mars
Data from NASA’s Curiosity rover has revealed the Martian...
Historic Comet Hunting Mission Ends As Deep Impact Falls Silent
After almost 9 years in space that included an...
Orbital’s Antares Blasts Off On First Cygnus Mission To ISS
Marking a giant stride forward in NASA’s plans to...
On Its 40th Mission, Atlas Deploys Third Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite
Dodging rain and high winds, an Atlas V rocket...
Moon Express’ Guidance Software Flies NASA’s Mighty Eagle On A Successful Test
The Mighty Eagle, a NASA robotic prototype lander managed...
To Boldly Go… Voyager 1 Reaches For The Stars
There was a time over a generation ago when...
NASA’s Lunar Dust Explorer Blasts Off From Virginia Spaceport
UPDATE: NASA has confirmed that the reaction wheels of...
Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo Conducts Second Powered Test Flight
Suborbital passenger spaceflight pioneer Virgin Galactic passed another major...
NASA Narrows List Of Potential Sites For Next Mars Lander
NASA has narrowed to four the number of potential...
STS-3 Space Shuttle Columbia Photo And Video Collection
Former NASA astronaut Gordon Fullerton passed away this week....
It’s Been 20 Years Since The First Flight Of DC-X
It’s been 20 years since the remarkable DC-X Delta...
NASA Prepares LADEE for First Virginia Coast Launch to Moon
In an attempt to answer prevailing questions about our...
Sierra Nevada Makes Second Successful Dream Chaser Captive-Carry Test Flight
NASA partner Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) of Louisville, Colo.,...
NASA Releases New Graphic and Video Depictions of Asteroid Mission
NASA released Thursday new photos and video animations depicting...
NASA Astronaut Candidate Class Of 2013 Introduced To The Public
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden on Tuesday formally welcomed the...
NASA Wallops Launch Facility To Host A Moon Mission Celebration August 21
The upcoming moon mission at the NASA Wallops Flight...
NASA Seeks Users For Shuttle Era Launch Structures
NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida is seeking concepts...
NASA Selects Technology Demonstration Projects for Suborbital Research Flights
NASA has selected for possible flight demonstration 10 proposals...
NASA Commercial Crew Partner SpaceX Completes Orbit and Entry Review
NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) partner Space Exploration Technologies...
NASA Adds Milestones To Commercial Crew Initiative, Funds SpaceX, Sierra Nevada
NASA announced Thursday it is adding some additional milestones...
NASA Launches Suborbital RockSat-X Mission With Student Payloads
A Terrier-Improved Malemute suborbital rocket carrying experiments developed by...
Delta IV Rocket Successfully Launches Sixth Wideband Global Satcom Military Satellite
Blazing through the evening skies over Florida, a United...
Japanese Resupply Craft HTV-4 Is Captured And Berthed To ISS
The fourth Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency H-II Transfer Vehicle,...
Progress 52 Resupply Ship Docks With ISS
The ISS Progress 52 resupply ship docked with the...
ULA Completes Five Major Milestones In Just Eight Days, Including One Launch
During the last eight days, the United Launch Alliance...
One Special Day in the Life of Planet Earth Shining Brightly In The Black Void
Color and black-and-white images of Earth taken by two...
Atlas V 551 Launches Its Heaviest Payload Yet, MUOS-2 For The U.S. Navy
Rattling windows as it pierced cloudy skies above Cape...
Photo/Video Feature: 38 Years Ago, The Mission Of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
The first international partnership in space wasn’t the International...
Eastern Range (ER) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Spaceport Concept
Introduction:  This concept explores the Eastern Range (ER) and...
Stephen Hawking – “Why Go To Space?” – NASA 50th Anniversary Lecture
MODERATOR: Good afternoon. Welcome to the  campus of George...
Watch Out NASA, The Next Mission To The Moon Might Not Be Yours
In 1959, the author Martin Caidin (“Marooned”) wrote, “The...
Space Shuttle Atlantis Grand Opening
NASA’s retired space shuttle Atlantis, the last orbiter to...
NASA Announces New Grand Challenge Aimed At Finding Asteroids
WASHINGTON, DC – NASA announced Tuesday a Grand Challenge...
Educational CubeSat Demonstrations Take To The Skies Aboard Prospector Rocket
Four tiny spacecraft soared over the California desert June...
NASA’s Space Launch System (Finally) Enters Preliminary Design Review
NASA is beginning a preliminary design review for its...
Mars As You’ve Never Seen It Before In A BILLION Pixels!
PASADENA, CA. – A billion-pixel view from the surface...
NASA Commercial Crew Partner Boeing Completes New Spacecraft, Rocket Milestones
HOUSTON, TX – The Boeing Company of Houston, a...
Another American High Frontier First: 3-D Manufacturing In Space
WASHINGTON, DC – In preparation for a future where...
Data From NASA Rover’s Voyage to Mars Aids Planning
PASADENA, CA – Measurements taken by NASA’s Mars Science...
NASA’s GRAIL Mission Solves Mystery of Moon’s Surface Gravity
PASADENA, CA – NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory...
Pebbly Rocks Testify to Old Streambed on Mars
PASADENA, CA – Detailed analysis and review have borne...
NASA Radar Reveals Asteroid Has Its Own Moon
PASADENA, CA – A sequence of radar images of...
Cassini Finds Hints of Activity at Saturn Moon Dione
PASADENA, CA – From a distance, most of the...
NASA’s WISE Mission Finds Lost Asteroid Family Members
WASHINGTON, DC – Data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey...
Teams Prepare For NASA $1.5 Million Robot Challenge
WASHINGTON, DC –  Eleven teams from across the country...
ISS Expedition 36 Grows To Six Following Same-day Soyuz Launch And Docking
NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and...
On Eve Of Demolition, SLC-17’s Twin Pads Bridge Space Age At Cape Canaveral
The twin launch gantries that mark Space Launch Complex...
Delta IV Returns To Flight With Successful Launch Of WGS-5 Spacecraft
CAPE CANAVERAL, FL – The Delta IV EELV returned...
Students And The Public Invited To Participate In Solar Sail Mission
The invention of the CubeSat standard by the California...
Atlas V’s First GPS Launch Is A Success
Thundering into cloudless blue skies, a United Launch Alliance...
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Saturn Illustrated Chronology – Part 1 April 1957 through December 1960

1957

April

In April 1957 the scientific organization directed by Dr.Wernher von Braun began studies which led to Saturn, America’s first rocket developed for space investigation. The team at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, hoped to design launch vehicles that could carry 20,000 to 40,000 pound payloads for orbital missions or 6,000 to 12,000 pound payloads for escape missions. High-thrust booster stages were essential.

December

In December 1957 the von Braun group, then working with the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), proposed a program to the Department of Defense (DOD).1 At that time the United States was considering an integrated missile and space vehicle development program. Creation of a booster with 1,500,000 pounds of thrust was the aim of the proposed program.

1. ABMA to DOD, “Proposal: A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program,” Dec. 10, 1957.

Proposed clustered booster1 1. Proposed configuration of a clustered booster.
To secure this much power ABMA first considered clusteringfour 380,000 pound thrust Rocketdyne E-1 engines. This initial concept was discarded because of the time required to complete development of thistype of engine. However, ABMA continued studies to determine if engines already developed could be used.


1958

August

On August 15, 1958, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) formally initiated what was to become the Saturn project. The agency, a separately organized research and development arm of the Department of Defense, authorized ABMA to conduct a research and development program at Redstone Arsenal for a 1,500,000 pound thrust vehicle booster. A number of available rocket engines would be clustered. This design would be tested by a full-scale static firing by the end of 1959.2

2. ARPA, ARPA Order 14-59, Aug. 15, 1958, p. 1.

Thor-Jupiter engine2 2. Thor-Jupiter engine.3. Booster tooling.
The liquid oxygen (LOX) and fuel tanks developed forthe Redstone and Jupiter missiles could be modified for use in the proposedbooster. An existing engine, the S-3D, used on both the Thor and Jupiter missiles, could be modified to produce an increased thrust of 188,000 pounds.Numerous tools and fixtures developed for the Redstone and Jupiter program could also be used with comparatively little modification. Thus it was possible to begin booster development with hardware of proven reliability. Time for design and development of some important booster components and tooling could be significantly shortened and cost reduced.

September

As an immediate step a contract was awarded Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation on September 11, 1958, to uprate S-3D, the Thor-Jupiter engine. After redesign, simplification, and modification, the engine would be the H-1.

Booster tooling3

October

In October 1958 ARPA expanded its program objectives. A multistage carrier vehicle capable of performing advanced space missions would be built. The vehicle was tentatively identified as Juno V. ARPA requested Redstone personnel to study a complete vehicle system so that upper-stage selection and development could begin, and initiated a study of Atlantic Missile Range (AMR) launch facilities which could accommodate the launch vehicle.3 Later, on December 11, 1958, ARPA authorized the Army Ordnance Missile Command (AOMC) to begin design, modification, and construction

of a captive static test tower and facilities for use in the booster development program. AOMC was also to determine the design requirements for necessary launch facilities.4

3. AOMC, Quarterly Progress Report on ARPA Orders14-59 and 47-59: for First Quarter CY 1959

, Apr. 7, 1959.4. ARPA, ARPA Order 47-59, Dec. 11, 1958.

Early H-1 engine4
Launch Complex 345 4. Early H-1 Engine5. Preliminary concept of Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral

December

While the booster-vehicle program was being formulated and expanded, development work on the H-1 engine continued. The first full-power H-1 engine firing occurred in December 1958 at the Rocketdyne facility in Canoga Park, California.


1959

January

Concurrently with development of the H-1 engine, studies were conducted pertaining to the feasibility of a larger single-chamber rocket engine. On January 9, 1959, Rocketdyne agreed by contract to design , develop, and test such an engine, designated as the F-1. This engine, burning LOX and RP-1, a kerosene-type fuel, would generate a very high thrust, approximately 1,500,000 pounds.

Construction of the ABMA static test stand for large boosters began January 10, 1959. Meanwhile, Army representatives of the ARPA board visited AMR to discuss selection of a site for large vehicle launch facilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida. By February 1959, a contract had been awarded for construction of the blockhouse at the site (Launch Complex 34). A design contract was also awarded for a movable structure which would be used to assemble and service the vehicle on the launch pedestal.

February

On February 3 an ARPA memorandum officially renamed the large launch vehicle project Saturn. ARPA representatives presented the proposed National Vehicle Program to the President and the National Aeronautics and Space Council on March 2, 1959. Included were the proposed Saturn B and C vehicle systems.5

5. U.S. Congress, House, Comm. on Science and Astronautics, Hearing on H. R. 9675, 86th Cong., 2nd Sess., Washington, GPO, 1960,testimony of Mr. Roy W. Johnson.

6Saturn B
Saturn C

7. Saturn B7. Saturn C

March

On March 13 ABMA submitted to ARPA the results of the Saturn System Study. This study indicated that either an Atlas or a Titan could be used as the second stage of the proposed vehicle.6 During May ARPA decided that modified Titan hardware could be used for the second stage and that the third stage could use a slightly modified Centaur vehicle.

6. MSFC, Project Saturn: Development and Funding PlanFY 1961, July 1, 1960, p. 2. Hereafter cited as MSFC, Saturn D&FPlan FY 61.

April-May

By April 28 the first production H-1 engine (H-1001) had been delivered on schedule to ABMA. ABMA’s first firing test of this engine, later used in the first test booster, was performed successfully on May 26, 1959.7

7. Eugene M. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics: AnAmerican Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space: 1959-1960 (Washington: NASA HHR-3, 1961), p. 109. Hereafter cited asEmme, Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1915-1960.

July

On July 5, 1959, construction of the Saturn blockhouse for Launch Complex 34 began at Cape Canaveral. On July 27 when the last Jupiter airframe was completed, Redstone Arsenal shops began retooling to support the Saturn project.

Late in July the Director of Defense Research and Engineering notified the Air Force and ARPA to consider common development of the Saturn second stage and the booster for the proposed Dyna Soar; requirements for these stages appeared to be similar. Until review of this , neither agency was to make a firm commitment for the redesign of existing boosters or development of new ones. ARPA then ordered cessation of the AOMC in-house and contractor work relating to the Titan second stage. An exception was made of some preliminary work not directly connected with the stage diameter.8

8. AOMC, Semiannual Technical Summary Report on ARPAOrders 14-59 and 47-59 from 1 July-31 December 1959, Feb. 15, 1960,p. 2.

Titan and Atlas stages8. Vehicles using Titan and Atlas stages9. Atlas Centaur vehicle (Centaur second stage) showing a; Atlas stage, b; second stage, c; payload, d; electronic and guidance package, e; liquid hydrogen tank, f; LOX tank, and h; RP-1 tank

August

Work continued on the Saturn booster stage. While studies of the proposed Saturn-Dyna Soar combination were in progress, ARPA, on August 1, authorized ABMA to proceed toward captive firing the Saturn booster early in 1960.

September

In September representatives of AOMC, NASA, and the Air Force presented Saturn, Nova, and Titan C systems to the Booster Evaluation Committee of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. On the basis of these presentations ARPA chose Saturn. ARPA then requested that Redstone scientists determine the Saturn configurations which could best carry NASA payloads.

Atlas Centaur vehicle9

October

During October 1959 consideration of Saturn vehicle configurations continued. On October 29 and 30 ABMA presented a second Saturn System Study to ARPA and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), proposing various upper-stage configurations which offered increased payload capability and growth potential. In December 1959, after evaluation of previous presentations, NASA and ARPA requested that AOMC prepare an engineering study for a three-stage

Saturn configuration.

Because of its large size and weight, the Saturn booster could not be transported by air or land. Water transportation appeared most feasible, and ARPA, on October 23, 1959, authorized AOMC to proceed with engineering work for dock facilities. These would be located on the Tennessee River at the southern boundary of Redstone Arsenal. In December AOMC was further authorized to construct the facilities and to build a barge to transport the booster to Cape Canaveral.

H-1 engine checkout10
Model of blockhouse at LC3411 10. H-1 engine in alignment fixture11. Model of blockhouse at Launch Complex 34

November

On November 18 NASA assumed technical direction of the Saturn project pending its formal transfer from ARPA. Administrative direction was retained by ARPA until March 16, 1960, when transfer of both administrative and technical direction would become effective.

December

On December 15 the Saturn Vehicle Evaluation Committee (the Silverstein Committee) reached a decision on Saturn upper-stage configurations.

This committee, composed of representatives from NASA, ARPA, DOD, and the Air Force, recommended a long-range development program for a Saturn vehicle with upper-stage engines burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The initial vehicle, identified as C-1, was to be a stepping stone to a larger vehicle, the C-2. A building-block concept was proposed that would yield a variety of Saturn configurations, each using previously proven developments as far as possible. These recommendations were accepted by the NASA Administrator.

On December 31, 1959, a ten-vehicle program was established.9

9. MSFC, Saturn D&F Plan FY 61, p. 2.

12C-1 and earlier vehiclesProposed C-213 12. C-1 and earlier vehicles: a. Redstone, b. Jupiter-C,c. Mercury Redstone, d. Jupiter, e. Juno II, and f. Saturn C-113. Proposed C-2
The C-1 vehicle configuration included the S-I, the S-IV,and the S-V stages. The S-I stage would have eight H-1 engines. Fueledby LOX/RP-1, the engines clustered were expected to produce a total of 1,500,000 pounds of thrust. The S-IV stage was conceived of as a four-engine liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen fueled unit capable of producing a total of 80,000 pounds of thrust. The S-V stage would use two of the same engines as the S-IV stage and this stage would provide an additional 40,000 pounds of thrust.


1960

January

The Saturn project was approved on January 18, 1960, as a program of the highest national priority (DX rating).

Booster stage (S-I)14 14. Booster stage (S-I)15. Second stage (S-IV)

January-February

To develop the second stage of Saturn C-1, NASA sought a contractor. A bidder’s conference concerning this S-IV stage was held at Huntsville, January 26 and 27, 1960. By February 29 twelve companies had submitted contract proposals.

Redstone Arsenal scientists started to work on the first stage. By 1960 the formal test program to prove out the clustered booster concept was well under way. A mockup of the Saturn booster was installed in the ABMA test stand on January 4, 1960, to check mating of the booster and stand and to test servicing methods. This mockup was removed from the test stand and the complete test booster, SA-T, was installed in its place during February 1960.

Second stage (S-IV)15
Moving Saturn test booster17 Third stage (S-IV)16. Third stage (S-V)17. Moving Saturn test booster from assembly to test

18. Booster in test stand

March-April

During March the executive order transferring the Saturn program to NASA became effective.10 Later in the month two of Saturn’s eight first stage engines passed an initial static firing test of approximately eight seconds’ duration. This test was identified as number SAT-01, the first live firing of the Saturn test booster (SA-T). It occurred on March 28.11 In a second test (SAT-02), on April 6, four engines were successfully static fired for seven seconds. All eight engines of the test booster were successfully fired on April 29 in an eight-second test.12

10. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Exec. Order 10870,Mar. 15, 1960.

11. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1915-1960,p. 121.

12. David S. Akens, MSFC Historian, Historical Originsof Marshall Space Flight Center, Dec. 1960, p. 63.Meanwhile, NASA reviewed the S-IV proposals received in February.

On April 26 NASA awarded Douglas Aircraft Company a contract to develop and build the second stage.

Booster in test stand18

May

On May 17 a second eight-engine static firing of 24 seconds’ duration generated a thrust of 1.3 million pounds. The third successful eight-engine firing lasted 35 seconds.13

13. ABMA Historical Office, History of Army BallisticMissile Agency: 1 January-30 June 1960.During May NASA announced that Rocketdyne had been selected to develop the high-thrust J-2 engine. This engine, of the type defined by the Silverstein Committee in December 1959, would burn liquid hydrogen-liquid oxygen. It would be used in an advanced Saturn vehicle.

The first ten Saturn flight vehicles would be numbered from SA-1 to SA-10. SA-10 would be the prototype of the operational Saturn.

On May 26, 1960, assembly of the booster stage for the first Saturn flight vehicle began in Huntsville.

Booster static firing19

July

On July 1, 1960, the Saturn program was formally transferred to the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).14 A second series of static tests had just been successfully completed on the first stage of Saturn C-1.

14. Morton J. Stoller, Asst. Dir. for Satellite and SoundingRocket Programs, NASA, “The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Space Flight Program,” Sept. 12, 1960, pp. 4-5.

On July 26 NASA signed a supplemental agreement with Douglas Aircraft Company covering the second stage. Douglas would design, develop, and fabricate the four-engine S-IV stage.

19. Booster static firing20. Model of J-2 engineModel of J-2 engine20
Assembly of main LOX tank21 21. Assembly of main LOX tank for SA-1 booster
Assembly of tanks on SA-122 22. Assembly of tanks on SA-1 booster
Structural fabrication of SA-123 23. Structural fabrication of SA-1 booster
Installation of engines on SA-124 24. Installation of engines on SA-1 booster25. Initial configuration of the S-IV stage

August

Contracts were also let on August 10, 1960, with Pratt & Whitney to develop and produce LR-119 engines; the Government would furnish these engines to the contractors responsible for building the S-IV and S-V stages of the C-1 vehicle. The LR-119, an uprated LR-115 engine, was expected to generate 17,500 pounds of thrust.

On August 14, 1960, construction began on the movable service structure for Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral.

S-IV stage configuration25
On August 15 the Air Force requested NASA assistance in planning the application of Saturn to Dyna Soar. After conferring with the Air Force, MSFC agreed on October 6 to provide a preliminary study.
Construction of Launch Complex 3426 26. Construction of service tower and pedestal27. Unveiling bust of General George C. Marshall

28. Dr. von Braun and President Eisenhower

September

On September 8 the facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at Huntsville, Alabama, were dedicated and designated as the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. President Eisenhower, Mrs. George C. Marshall, NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan, and many other national, state, and local dignitaries participated in the ceremony.

October

On October 21 NASA awarded to Convair a study contract for a second upper stage, the S-V. On October 25 NASA selected Convair, General Electric, and Martin to conduct individual feasibility studies of an advanced manned spacecraft as part of Project Apollo.15

15. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics: 1915-1960,p. 129.

Ceremony at MSFC27von Braun and President Eisenhower28

December

MSFC started a new series of static firing tests of the test booster (modified to the SA-1 flight configuration and designated SA-T1) on December 2, 1960. An eight-engine test lasting two seconds was first. The next week a test of two engines was conducted in a six-second firing.

The series of booster tests was successfully concluded on December 20, 1960, by a 60-second firing of all eight engines. Fabrication of the tanks for the booster stage of the second Saturn flight vehicle (SA-2) was completed during December. Assembly of the booster began immediately.

Mr. Glennan, President Eisenhower and von Braun2929. Mr. Glennan, President Eisenhower, and Dr. von Braun

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